STEM CELLS

Exosomes released from human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived MSCs facilitate cutaneous wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and angiogenesis - (​Jieyuan Zhang, Junjie Guan, Xin Niu, Guowen Hu, Shangchun Guo , Qing Li , Zongping Xie , Changqing Zhang and Yang Wang) - Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) have emerged as a promising alternative for stem cell transplantation therapy. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exos) can play important roles in repairing injured tissues. However, to date, no reports have demonstrated the use of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in cutaneous wound healing, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms in tissue repair​.

MSC-derived exosomes ameliorate erectile dysfunction by alleviation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle apoptosis in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury - (Xi Ouyang , Xiaoyan Han , Zehong Chen, Jiafeng Fang, Xuna Huang and Hongbo Wei) - This study investigated the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) on erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury (CNI).

Cellular mechanotransduction: putting all the pieces together again - (Vascular Biology Program, Departments of Pathology and Surgery, Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA​) - Analysis of cellular mechanotransduction, the mechanism by which cells convert mechanical signals into biochemical responses, has focused on identification of critical mechanosensitive molecules and cellular components. Stretch-activated ion channels, caveolae, integrins, cadherins, growth factor receptors, myosin motors, cytoskeletal filaments, nuclei, extracellular matrix, and numerous other structures and signaling molecules have all been shown to contribute to the mechanotransduction response.

Mesenchymal stem cells: Myths and reality - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; also called mesenchymal stromal cells) have received much attention during the last two decades, at first because of their regeneration capacity and poor immunogenicity and, more recently, because of their proved immunomodulatory function.

Angiogenic response upon shock wave treatment of the ischaemic muscle -  Shock wave therapy (SWT) represents a clinically widely used angiogenic and thus regenerative approach for the treatment of ischaemic heart or limb disease. Despite promising results in preclinical and clinical trials, the exact mechanism of action remains unknown. Toll-like receptor 3, which is part of the innate immunity, is activated by binding doublestranded (ds) RNA. It plays a key role in inflammation, a process that is needed also for angiogenesis. We hypothesize that SWT causes cellular cavitation without damaging the target cells, thus liberating cytoplasmic RNA that in turn activates TLR3.

Scientific Reports - Gene transfection by shock waves - Extracorporeal shock wave (SW) therapy has been studied in the transfection of naked nucleic acids into various cell lines through the process of sonoporation, a process that affects the permeation of cell membranes, which can be an effect of cavitation. In this study, siRNAs were efficiently transfected into primary cultured cells and mouse tumor tissue via SW treatment. Furthermore SWinduced siRNA transfection was not mediated by SW-induced sonoporation, but by microparticles (MPs) secreted from the cells. Interestingly, the transfection effect of the siRNAs was transferable through the secreted MPs from human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture medium after treatment with SW, into HUVECs in another culture plate without SW treatment. In this study, we suggest for the first time a mechanism of gene transfection induced by low-energy SW through secreted MPs, and show that it is an efficient physical gene transfection method in vitro and represents a safe therapeutic strategy for site-specific gene delivery in vivo.

Improvement of adipose tissue–derived cells by low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy - Cell-based therapies with autologous adipose tissue–derived cells have shown great potential in several clinical studies in the last decades.The majority of these studies have been using the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), a heterogeneous mixture of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, pericytes and adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) among others. Although possible clinical applications of autologous adipose tissue– derived cells are manifold, they are limited by insufficient uniformity in cell identity and regenerative potency.

Novel Approach to Obtain an Activated Fat Graph - One of the mainstays of facial rejuvenation strategies is volume restoration, which can be achieved by autologous fat grafting. In our novel approach, we treated the adipose tissue harvest site with extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in order to improve the quality of the regenerative cells in situ. The latter was demonstrated by characterizing the cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in the harvested liposuction material regarding cell yield, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, proliferative capacity, surface marker profile, differentiation potential and secretory protein profile.

UGA In vitro study: ESWT treatment of platelets causes increased release of growth factors - Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) are both used for the treatment of soft tissue injuries in horses. Clinically, the question has been raised whether these two therapies could be used in combination. The hypothesis of this study was the application of ESWT to PRP would increase the release of platelet derived growth factors (PDGF) and transforming growth factors beta 1 (TGF) from platelets.